Pressure Injury Progression and Factors Associated With Different End-Points in a Home Palliative Care Setting: A Retrospective Chart Review Study
2.18.19 - Studio prospettico multicentrico sulle lesioni da pressione nei pazienti ricoverati in hospice: prevalenza, incidenza e fattori associati.
Patients with advanced illnesses show the highest prevalence for pressure injuries. In the palliative care setting, the ultimate goal is injury healing, but equally important is wound maintenance, wound palliation (wound-related pain and symptom management), and primary and secondary wound prevention.
To describe the course of healing for pressure injuries in a home palliative care setting according to different end-points, and to explore patient and caregiver characteristics and specific care activities associated with their achievement.
Four-year retrospective chart review of 669 patients cared for in a home palliative care service, of those 124 patients (18.5%) had at least one pressure injury with a survival rate less than or equal to six months.
The proportion of healed pressure injuries was 24.4%. Of the injuries not healed, 34.0% were in a maintenance phase, whereas 63.6% were in a process of deterioration. Body mass index (P = 0.0014), artificial nutrition (P = 0.002), and age <70 years (P = 0.022) emerged as predictive factors of pressure injury complete healing. Artificial nutrition, age, male caregiver (P = 0.034), and spouse (P = 0.036) were factors significantly associated with a more rapid pressure injury healing. Continuous deep sedation was a predictive factor for pressure injury deterioration and significantly associated with a more rapid worsening.
Pressure injury healing is a realistic aim in home palliative care, particularly for injuries not exceeding Stage II occurring at least two weeks before death. When assessing pressure injuries, our results highlight the need to also pay attention to artificial nutrition, continuous deep sedation, and the caregiver's role and gender.
Advanced ill patients; caregivers; nursing; palliative care; pressure injuries; wound care.