Academic self-efficacy in Bachelor-level nursing students: Development and validation of a new instrument
An available strategy to counteract academic failure is the development and implementation of student academic self-efficacy; however, to date, there are no instruments measuring it. The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test an academic nurse self-efficacy scale.
A longitudinal study design was used in accordance with Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health status Measurement Instruments guidelines.
A convenience sample of 1,129 nursing students attending the first year of the course were involved. The data collection began in 2014 and went on for three years. Data were collected at the beginning of the first (T0), at the end of the first (T1), at the end of the second (T2) and at the end of the third (T3) year. The academic nurse self-efficacy scale was evaluated for content and face validity, for construct validity with explorative, confirmative factor analysis and hypothesis testing and for reliability. The standard error and the smallest detectable difference were also evaluated.
Scree plot analysis suggested a four-factor solution and confirmative factor analysis model reached a good fit. We verified the first hypothesis, partially the second and not the third. The dimensions show a Cronbach's α 0.72-0.83. The smallest detectable difference was 26%.
The academic nurse self-efficacy scale had good validity and reliability and should be considered for nursing students. Impact: These findings may have an impact on universities, mainly in nursing degree programmes because nurse educators can identify nursing students with low academic self-efficacy and help them in their academic duties. Indirectly, academic self-efficacy monitoring can be used for evaluating the effect of different teaching strategies or mentorship support over time.